Prof. Sue Robinson
Office Hours: By Appointment
email@example.com (best way to reach me)
J676: Socially Media & the News
This course will introduce students to the contexts and forms of social media within journalism. What are social media, who uses them, who gains from them, and how are they transforming the media landscape –particularly for news — and the way we inhabit the world? Students will become familiar with a range of social media tools, analyze and discuss their uses and implications for journalistic purposes, and develop what media scholar Trebor Scholz calls “participation literacy” within a “we the media” world as described by former journalist Dan Gillmor. Class participants will have the opportunity to explore both theory and practice of social media through writing assignments, applied tasks, and a course project.
REQUIRED READINGS AND APPS (as well as many more links and pdfs given in the syllabus)
Connor, Angela. (2009). 18 Rules of community engagement: A guide for building relationships and connecting with customers. Cupertino, CA: Happy About.
Gillmore, Dan. MediaActive. Available at http://mediactive.com/book/table-of-contents-2/ .(FREE online)
Kovach, Tom and Rosenstiel, Tom. (2011). Blur: How to Know What’s True in the Age of Information Overload. New York: Bloomsbury USA ($10)
Rainie, Lee and Wellman, Barry. (2012). Networked: The New Social Operating System. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ($16)
Stratten, Scott. (2012). Unmarketing: Stop Marketing. Start Engaging. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. ($10)
iMovie app ($5)
Page One movie ($5 to rent)
Facebook Group: SJMC Social Media & News
Social Media Packet (40):
n Your Twitter (10): Must have at least 100 tweets throughout the semester. Does not include Retweets. Must include TWO live tweeting of our speakers.
- Half of these tweets should be recorded by mid-semester
n Your Blog (15): Must have at least 10 entries throughout the semester. Must include “marketing” of your blog in various realms. I am open to other kinds of platforms here such as Pinterest, Tumblr, SoundCloud, Google Plus, a Facebook Group page, YouTube channel etc. (A blog will help you get a job more than any of these others, depending on your specialty.) Included in your entries must be: the results of one interview with a major influencer, one review of a book related to your specialty or blog topic, and one discussion of a current event in social media and your specialty.
I will be looking to see that you have: a photo associated with the profile, an About Me, lots of links throughout, images and a variety of content, good writing, good headlines, tagged content with keywords, a search function, etc.
- You should have 5 entries by the end of Spring Break
n Your Contribution to the class Facebook Group Page (5): Here we will primarily discuss the readings in separate posts but also this is a place we can ask questions, answer questions, crowdsource our projects, and organize study groups, etc. You will see these assignments throughout the syllabus.
- This will be done throughout the semester, but most heavily in the first half of the semester.
n Social Media Strategy (10): 1-page single-spaced of your social-media strategy to date and going forward. This must include: 1) your social media goals, 2) analytics of your social media use, 3) a list of stakeholders/key influencers in your specialty area, 4) what you have done to amplify your content this semester, and 5) specific plans going forward.
- This should be done for the full report on May 8
Part I of the Social Media Packet is due after Spring Break; The full report will be due May 8.
Presentations (10): Hour-long, team-based presentation according to various topics with 1-2 other people. Basically you will be leading a class discussion based on what you and your partner research and find. Can use everything from academic journal articles, Poynter/mashable/etc. pieces, can assign readings, analyze case studies, etc. The class is yours. You can be practical or theoretical, but the perfect discussion will include elements of both. You should have one 15-minute interview with a key influencer in your area that you draw from (that you have recorded in some manner or that you do live during the class). *** These should incorporate the ipads in some manner. Extra points for creativity.
n Feb. 14 – Presentation I: SoundCloud and Copyright
n Feb. 28 – Presentation II: Two Current Ethical Cases in Social Media
n March 7 – Presentation III: Pinterest and Journalism
n April 15 – Presentation IV: GeoLocation and the News
n April 23 – Presentation V: Instagram and the News
n April 25 – Presentation VI: Google Circles/Hangouts as a Reporting/Production Tool
n May 2 – Presentation VII: Newsroom Social Media Policies
n May 7 – Presentation VIII: Future of Social Media in News (what’s coming?)
Midterm Paper (20): Five pages (double spaced; 12pt, Times Roman, not a single word more) on some aspect of social media in the news. Must include a significant selection of the readings from the class thus far, as well as any other sources you think the paper warrants. May include interviews with social-media experts (i.e. not your roommate who tweets), which can be done via social media (but not required). Some examples of this might be: Formal Social Media Policies in Newsrooms; Pinterest: Fad or Sticky Trend?; News and Twitter: What is happening to the news article? This paper will be due March 20.
TEAM (2-3 people) Final Project (20): This is a unique, alternative final project that needs to be interactive and involve “real people.” I am going to leave the overall form up to you. This is where you think outside the box. The requirements: 1) I get to approve what you are doing; 2) it must be interactive and be fundamentally about engagement with “regular” people in some way. I want you to demonstrate that you understand these technologies, platforms and strategies on how best to use them. Ideas might include:
n a proposal for a new news app that includes market research and a plan for development and an interview with someone who knows apps;
n an executed CoverItLive or ScribbleLive hour-long blog on some topic, hosted on your website and involving “real” experts and a live audience that you have marketed, with a video recording to be hosted on Youtube or vimeo and/or your blog;
n a complete social-media strategy for some media company you think needs to be overhauled (must include interviews with people from that organization about their mission and target audiences). I have buy-in for this idea from The Progressive Magazine, the Isthmus and the Wisconsin Center for Inestigative Reporting, but could also consider Madison Magazine, madison.com, WiscPolitics, WPR, and other Wisconsin or national sites. You MUST talk to the people you case study, however.
These are just a few of the ways that you can do this project, which should employ everything you have learned about this class in a way that will be beneficial to your portfolio. All must include interviews and/or engagement with real people in some manner. The final hand-in will vary for each team, determined at the proposal stage.
Due May 13. (**A proposal is due after Spring Break.)
Class Attendance/Participation/Professionalism (20): This is where my absentee policy comes into play, but also participation in assignments and class discussions, as well as the professionalism of your behavior throughout the semester in all the platforms in which we will be performing. ** I loathe giving quizzes because students aren’t reading. Alas, I will if I sense you are not keeping up with the homework. But I want you to know I don’t wanna do it.
CONDITIONS OF THE COURSE
GRADING SCALE AND STANDARDS
In this graduate class, an “A” represents outstanding or exceptional work that fulfils the assignment with excellence in content and execution. A “B” indicates competent work that nevertheless is not a full or well-executed completion of the assignment. A “C” means that the work is within the parameters of the assignment but is significantly lacking in content and execution. A “D” generally means the piece is barely within the parameters of the assignment, some key part is missing, or it is just generally bad. A failing grade of “F” means that assignments were not turned in or were very poorly executed, or that the student has been academically dishonest (see below).
All students are expected to demonstrate a good command of English grammar and spelling, and writing quality will be a factor in grades. The quality and quantity of your participation in this semester also is a significant factor in your grade, as is your attendance (see below).
ACADEMIC HONESTY: PLAGIARISM AND OTHER FORMS OF DISHONESTY
Academic honesty and dishonesty: Plagiarism and other forms of cheating
The following statement is from the online University of Wisconsin-Madison policy on academic dishonesty:
Academic honesty requires that the course work (drafts, reports, examinations, papers) a student presents to an instructor honestly and accurately indicates the student’s own academic efforts. UWS 14 is the chapter of the University of Wisconsin System Administrative code that regulates academic misconduct. UW-Madison implements the rules defined in UWS 14 through our own “Student Academic Misconduct Campus Procedures.” UWS 14.03 defines academic misconduct as follows:
Academic misconduct is an act in which a student:
* seeks to claim credit for the work or efforts of another without authorization or citation;
* uses unauthorized materials or fabricated data in any academic exercise;
* forges or falsifies academic documents or records;
* intentionally impedes or damages the academic work of others;
* engages in conduct aimed at making false representation of a student’s academic performance;
* assists other students in any of these acts.
Examples include but are not limited to: cutting and pasting text without quotation marks (even if you have cited the material); paraphrasing without crediting the source; using notes or a programmable calculator in an exam when such use is not allowed; using another person’s ideas, words, or research and presenting it as one’s own by not properly crediting the originator; stealing examinations or course materials; changing or creating data in a lab experiment; altering a transcript; signing another person’s name to an attendance sheet; hiding a book knowing that another student needs it to prepare an assignment; collaboration that is contrary to the stated rules of the course, or tampering with a lab experiment or computer program of another student.
In this class, the penalty for academic dishonesty is failure of the class—not just the assignment, but also the entire course. Any incident may also seriously jeopardize your standing in this program.
***As part of a broad range of educational tools used by SJMC to help ensure academic integrity, I am using Turnitin software. The Midterm must be submitted to turnitin.com as part of the submission process for work completed in this class. The Turnitin.com tool then compares the work from one student with a variety of sources, including (but not limited to) websites, publications, and a database of prior papers. Turnitin then provides the instructor with links to possible matches between the student’s paper and these other sources, along with a ‘similarity score.’ The instructor (not the software) then makes a complete assessment whether, or not, any form of academic misconduct may have occurred. All assignments are required to be submitted via both email to me as well as to the classroom drop box on Turnitin.com. Any assignment not submitted via both email and turnitin.com at the designated due date/time will be considered late. I will not read your Midterm until it is also uploaded to Turnitin, which must be done by deadline. Go to turnitin.com for STUDENT and enroll in a class. The class.section ID for this class is: 5964819 and the enrollment password is: J676Social.
ATTENDANCE AND MISSED WORK
A significant amount of material will be covered every week. I realize that sometimes absences are unpredictable and unavoidable. That’s why you may be absent from two classes (in the entire semester) without penalty. For each additional unexcused absence, your seminar-participation grade will drop by half a letter grade (A goes down to AB, etc.). Regarding the material covered during the class(es) you miss, you must get notes from another student, and you are responsible for knowing that material. You also are responsible for turning in notes for any week you miss (unless I have excused them due to serious circumstances).
COURSE CONDUCT AND SENSITIVITY
I expect you to approach this class in a professional manner. I expect you to be on time, to come prepared and to participate fully. I also expect that cell phones, Blackberries, iphones etc. are turned off prior to class. While this class is all about social media and we will be actively using our iPads and laptops throughout, I expect that you will give me and your fellow classmates the respect of your attention during these two hours; that means no non-class related Facebook, email or other online surfing.
Media issues and content cannot be thoughtfully and rigorously discussed without an occasional reference to unpopular ideas or to offensive material. Students and instructors alike are expected to remain sensitive to individual differences. The diversity of a multicultural society requires that we discuss differences with no anger, arrogance, or personal attacks, and without perpetuating stereotypes about gender, age, race, religious affiliation, sexual preference, national origin, dialect, or disability. This also goes for political affiliations.
ACCESS TO THE INSTRUCTOR
My office hours are listed at the top of this syllabus. I also am available to see students by appointment, and you may reach me by phone or e-mail, listed above. The very best way to reach me is via email.
(Subject to change)
Tues., Jan. 22: Syllabus, Introductions
HW due Jan. 24:
n SKIM Mediactive book except for Chapter 9
n Learning how to blog – the Right Way (McAdams): http://mindymcadams.com/tojou/2012/learning-how-to-blog-the-right-way/
n Here’s why we must teach all students how to blog (Bamaproducer): http://bamaproducer.wordpress.com/2012/02/12/heres-why-we-must-teach-all-students-how-to-blog/
n 20 Tumbler tips for news organizations (journalism): http://www.journalism.co.uk/news/tumblr-tips-for-journalists/s2/a550078/
n Why Twitter is Important: http://talentegg.ca/incubator/2011/02/10/why-every-student-and-new-grad-should-be-using-twitter/
n Getting Started on Twitter: http://mindymcadams.com/tojou/2011/journalists-how-to-get-started-with-twitter/
n Seven Effective Twitter Tips: http://smedio.com/2010/03/22/seven-habits-of-highly-effective-tweets/
n The Twitter Trap (NYT): http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/22/magazine/the-twitter-trap.html?_r=1
n PCWorld’s Flipboard for ipad: http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2367338,00.asp
Thurs., Jan. 24: Part One: Sign us up! The iPads plus our Facebook page, your Blogs, Tweets, Pinterest, LinkedIn, Flipboard/Zite/RebelMouse, etc. Part Two: Social Media Report; Part Three: How to blog/tweet (well)
HW Due Jan. 29:
n Kovach & Rosenstiel. Blur, chapters 3-8 (SKIM)
n York, Jillian. (2011, Fall). The Revolutionary Force of Facebook and Twitter. Nieman Reports: http://www.nieman.harvard.edu/reportsitem.aspx?id=102681
n Jarvis, J. (2009). Product v Process Journalism. Buzzmachine: http://buzzmachine.com/2009/06/07/processjournalism/
n The Article as Luxury or Byproduct (Buzzmachine): http://buzzmachine.com/2011/05/28/the-article-as-luxury-or-byproduct/
n What is plagiarism: http://journalism.library.wisc.edu/JRRAcademicIntegrity.pdf
n Please rent and watch the movie Page One. You may find this in any DVD store, but also on iTunes or online. Please tweet while you watch it.
n Write an entry on the Facebook Group page (see my posted question)
Tues., Jan. 29: Social Media and the News Revolution; How to detect online bulls*it; Avoiding Plagiarism (Quiz)
HW due Jan. 31:
n Networked, Chapters 1 (The Triple Revolution) and then SKIM Chapters 2-4 (The new Social Operating System of Networked Individualism, The Social Network Revolution, The Internet Revolution, and the Mobile Revolution)
n Unmarketing: Chapter 2 (“A word on experts”), Chapter 9 (“Social Media”), Chapter 10 (“Twitter vs Facebook”)
n Blur, chp 2 “We have been here before”
n Overview of Social Media Tools for Journalists: http://mindymcadams.com/tojou/2012/best-social-media-tools-for-journalists/ (SKIM THROUGH)
n Picard, Robert. (2009, Fall). Blogs, Tweets, Social Media, and the News Business. Nieman Reports. Accessed 12 January 2012 from http://www.nieman.harvard.edu/reportsitem.aspx?id=101884
n Write an entry on the Facebook Group page (see my posted question)
n Tell Sue what your blog will be and email her the URL; Set it up if needed
n Respond to the Facebook Group page (see posted question)
Thurs., Jan. 31: Overview of Platforms (Group Work)
HW due Feb. 5:
n Readings from Networked. Ch 5 and ch 9,
n Anderson, Chris: http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/12.10/tail.html
n Heinrich, Ansgard. (2012). What is “network journalism?” Media International Austria. 144, 60-67. (See Learn@UW)
n Anderson, C., Bell, E., and Shirky, C. (2012). Post Industrial Journalism: Adapting to the Present. Tow Center for Digital Journalism: http://towcenter.org/research/post-industrial-journalism/ SKIM
- (OR you can watch Shirky talking about this here in a half an hour video: http://buzzmachine.com/2006/07/05/networked-journalism/)
n Respond to the Facebook Group page (see posted question)
n Please research Wellman’s work and tweet out two questions (@barrywellman) before Sunday at noon.
Tues., Feb, 5: A Networked World & News (A Discussion); Speaker: Barry Wellman (author of Networked) will take your questions (prizes for those questions he chooses to answer)
HW due Feb. 7:
n The New York Times’ “How call me maybe and social media are upending music”: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/22/business/media/how-call-me-maybe-and-social-media-are-upending-music.html
n Unmarketing: Chapter 7 (“Pull and stay”), Chapters 11 (“Social Media Platforming”), Chapter 12 (“HARO”), Chapter 17 (“How Twitter Changed my Business”), Chapter 19 (“Local Twitter”), Chapter 49 (“Viral Marketing”), Chapter 51 (“Putting it into practice”)
n Mashable’s “The most viral news sources”: http://mashable.com/2012/03/01/the-most-viral-news-sources-on-twitter-and-facebook-infographic/
n Rabin’s Is it possible to remain unknown?: mobile.avclub.com/articles/googling-sugar-man-is-it-possible-to-remain-unknow,86858?mobile=true
Thurs. Feb. 7: Social Media Strategy, Building Audiences, Going Viral! (Group Discussion: Call Me Maybe)
HW for Feb. 11: Read:
n Check out our speaker, Robert Hernandez at @webjournalist and http://annenberg.usc.edu/Faculty/Communication%20and%20Journalism/HernandezR.aspx
n Business2Community’s “5 Ways to make your content instantly more shareable”: http://www.business2community.com/content-marketing/5-ways-to-make-your-content-instantly-more-shareable-0271838
n MarkCollier.com, “The One Thing You Can Do Now to Help Your Blog Succeed in 2013”: http://www.mackcollier.com/the-one-thing-you-can-do-now-to-help-your-blog-succeed-in-2013/
Tues., Feb. 12: Social Media Strategy (Speaker: Robert Hernandez – social media guru and Professor at USC Annenberg)
Thurs., Feb. 14: Presentation I: SoundCloud and Copyright
HW due Feb. 18:
n Mediactive chp 9, Laws and Norms;
n Friend, C. and Singer, J. (2007). Online Journalism Ethics: Traditions and Transitions (Chps. 4-7SKIM). M.E.Sharp. (See Learn@UW)
n Unmarketing Chapter 35 (“Transparency and Authenticity”), Chapter 37 (“Your Transparency on Twitter”)
n What journalists need to know about libelous tweets (Poynter): http://www.poynter.org/latest-news/top-stories/141987/what-journalists-need-to-know-about-libelous-tweets/
n Please research Jon Hart, our speaker on Feb. 19, and tweet him two questions ahead of class.
n Please research Stephen Ward, our speaker on Feb. 21.
Tues., Feb. 19: Social Media, Journalism and the Law (Speaker: Jon Hart, attorney for the Online News Association)
Thurs., Feb. 21: Social Media, Journalism and Ethics Discussion (Speaker: Stephen Ward of the Wisconsin Center for Journalism Ethics)
HW due Feb. 26:
n Papacharissi, Z. & de Fatima Oliveira, M. (2011). The rhythms of news storytelling on Twitter: Coverage of the January 25th Egyptian uprising on Twitter. World Association for Public Opinion Research, Amsterdam, September 2011. (On Learn@UW)
n Hermida, A. (2010). Twittering the news: The emergence of ambient journalism. Journalism Practice, 4(3), 297-308. (On Learn@UW)
n The Genuine Article (CJR): http://www.cjr.org/cover_story/the_genuine_article.php?page=all
n The Lego Approach to Storytelling (Knight Digital Media Center): http://www.knightdigitalmediacenter.org/leadership_blog/comments/20110602_the_lego_approach_to_storytelling/
n From blog to narrative: Josh Benton throws us a curve (Poynter): http://www.poynter.org/how-tos/newsgathering-storytelling/writing-tools/87714/from-blog-to-narrative-josh-benton-throws-us-a-curve/
n What is ok to curate: http://storify.com/storify/storify-twitter-chat-what-s-ok-to-curate
n Best tools to summarize Twitter hashtag: http://www.searchenginepeople.com/blog/best-tools-to-summarize-twitter-hashtags.html
n 5 Rules for journalists using storify: http://storify.com/girljournalist/stacis-rules-for-storify
n NYT’s Stelter on reporting the hurricane “the deadline”: http://thedeadline.tumblr.com/post/5904630983/what-i-learned-in-joplin
n Buzzfeed’s “Reporting Life”: http://www.buzzfeed.com/jwherrman/reporting-live-from-tumblr
Tues., Feb. 26: What is STORY in Social Media (with some narrative theory); Curation (including Storify and the live blog)
Thurs., Feb. 28: Presentation II: Two Current Ethical Cases in Social Media
n Mashable’s Will the next big social network be all about video?: http://mashable.com/2012/12/13/spreecast/
n Frosh, P. (2001). The Public Eye and the citizen-voyeur: Photography as a performance of power. Social Semiotics, 11(1), 43-59
n Mendelson, A. (Forthcoming). The Indecisive Moment Snapshot Aesthetics as Journalistic Truth. Cite to come.
Tues., March 5: Visual Story on Social Media; Tips for Photos and Video (Theory and Practice)
HW due March 7:
n Jeffbuullas’ How to setup your brand new Pinterest Business page: http://www.jeffbullas.com/2012/11/19/how-to-setup-your-brand-new-pinterest-business-page/#ShL8lu4wr0VpkOQD.99
Thurs., March 7: Presentation III: Pinterest and Journalism
HW due March 12:
n Deuze, Mark, Bruns, Axel Bruns, and Neuberger, C. (2007). Preparing for an age of participatory news. Journalism Practice, 1(3): 321-338. (Learn@UW)
n Castells, M. (2009). Conclusion: Toward a Communication Theory of Power. In Communication Power (pp. 416-432). Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Learn@UW)
n Rosen, J. (2006) The People formerly known as the audience. PressThink [Blog]. Accessed from http://archive.pressthink.org/2006/06/27/ppl_frmr.html
n Gillmor, Dan. We the media (Chapters 2-3, pp 23-65). California: O’Reilly Media. (Learn@UW)
n Unmarketing: Chapter 14 (“Publicized Customer Service”), Chapter 16 (“Seven Deadly Sins”), Chapter 22 (“Don’t feed the trolls”), Chapter 31 (“Zappos”)
Tues., March 12: News audiences in a socially mediated world; Class Exercise
HW due March 14: Check out Facebook and Harbath: http://www.katieharbath.com/about/
Thurs., March 14: Facebook and Building Audiences (Speaker: Katie Harbath, associate manager for policy at Facebook)
HW due March 19: MIDTERM PAPER
Tues., March 19: No Class: MIDTERM due by midnight
MIDTERM PAPER DUE
HW due March 21:
n Networked, 81-114 “The Mobile Revolution”
n Knight Digital Media Center’s The Transition to Digital Journalism: http://multimedia.journalism.berkeley.edu/tutorials/digital-transform/mobile/
n TMM’s MOJO Revealed: Insights into Mobile Journalism: http://www.thoroughlymodernmarketing.com/mojo-revealed-insights-into-mobile-journalism/
n Check out Regina McCombs’ background: http://about.poynter.org/about-us/our-people/regina-mccombs
n Tweet out to Regina one question for her (A prize if she takes up your question during the conference)
Thurs., March 21: MOJO (Mobile Journalism) Today (Speaker: Regina McCombs, Faculty for Multimedia and Mobile at The Poynter Institute)
Tues., March 26: SPRING BREAK
Thurs.: March 28: SPRING BREAK
HW due April 2: Proposal for Final Project Due; Part One of Social Media Packet Due
Tues., April 2: Class Social Media Critique
FINAL PROJECT PROPOSAL DUE
Part One Social Media Packet Due
Thurs., April 4: Class Social Media Critique
HW: Work on Final Project; Social Media Package
Tues., April 9: Class Reporting Exercise with the iPad (Visuals)
Thurs., April 11: Class Reporting Exercise with the iPad (Workshop)
HW: Work on Social Media Package, Final Package
Mon., April 15: Presentation IV: GeoLocation and the News
HW due April 17:
n Gizmodo’s “How to protect your privacy on Foursquare”: http://gizmodo.com/5972886/how-to-protect-your-privacy-on-foursquare
Wed., April 17: Class Exercise: Foursquare Scavenger Hunt
HW: Work on Final Projects, Social Media Packets
Tues., April 23: Presentation V: Instagram and the News
Thurs., April 25: Presentation VI: Google Hangouts as a Reporting/Production Tool
HW: Work on Final Projects, Social Media Packets
Also due April 30:
n SKIM 18 Rules of community engagement: A guide for building relationships and connecting with customers
n Turkle, Sherri. (2012). Chapter From Alone Together
n Shirky, C. (2008). Here comes Everybody Chapters 1-2. New York: Penguin Press.
Tues., April 30: Building Community Online (Speaker TBA); Team Meetings
Thurs., May 2: Presentation VII: Newsroom Social Media Policies
HW: Work on Final Projects, Social Media Packets
Also due May 7:
n Kovach and Rosenstiel, Blur, Chapter 9 “What we need from the next generation of journalism,” and Epilogue “The new way of knowing.”
n Starkman, Dean. (2011, November/December). Confidence Game: The limited vision of the news gurus. Columbia Journalism Review. Accessed 15 January 2012 from http://www.cjr.org/feature/confidence_game.php?page=all
n Please watch the video “The Future of Authority” at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xQH6WWrFH2g&list=PLxaUSBUUlSvi3zHgYACnw2f4CQtfnLo7V
Tues.: May 7: Presentation VIII: Future of Social Media in News
Thurs.: May 9: LAST DAY OF CLASS (Evaluations; Team Meetings)
(FULL) Social Media Packet due May 9
FINAL PROJECT DUE May 10